By Eugene Toy, John Patlan, Mark Warner
Real-Life instances for the interior drugs Clerkship and the USMLE Step 3
''...an first-class inner drugs overview ebook written specially or clinical scholars of their medical years. it really is excellent for clerkships, sub-internships, shelf, and USMLE assessments. Sized to slot in the pocket of a white coat for simple portability, this ebook deals an attractive and high-yield re-view of inner medication. It promotes lively studying, utilizing sufferer shows and thought-provoking inquiries to inspire deeper wondering scientific difficulties. The structure might be cozy for somebody who has frolicked at the wards studying from sufferers and interesting in problem-based learning....This publication is extremely suggested to complement inner drugs clerkships and sub-internships and to arrange for shelf and USMLE exams.''--Yale magazine of Biology & Medicine
You want publicity to high-yield instances to excel at the inner medication clerkship and the shelf-exam. Case documents: inner Medicine provides 60 real-life situations that illustrate crucial options in inner drugs. every one case contains a entire dialogue, medical pearls, references, definitions of key words, and USMLE-style assessment questions. With the program, you will study within the context of genuine sufferers, instead of in basic terms memorize facts.
- 60 scientific situations, every one with USMLE-style questions
- scientific pearls spotlight key techniques
- Primer on the best way to process medical difficulties and imagine like a physician
- confirmed studying approach improves your shelf-exam scores
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Additional resources for Case files. / Internal medicine
Cardiac Enzymes Certain proteins, referred to as cardiac enzymes, are released into blood from necrotic heart muscle after an acute MI. Creatine phosphokinase (CK) level rises within 4 to 8 hours and returns to normal by 48 to 72 hours. Creatine phosphokinase is found in skeletal muscle and other tissues, but the creatine kinase myocardial band (CK-MB) isoenzyme is not found in significant amounts outside of heart muscle, so elevation of this fraction is more specific for myocardial injury. Cardiac-specific troponin I (cTnI) and cardiac-specific troponin T (cTnT) are more specific to heart muscle and are the preferred markers of myocardial injury.
Acute myocardial infarction is diagnosed based on the presence of at least two of three criteria: typical symptoms, ECG findings, and cardiac enzymes. Initial ECG and enzyme levels may be normal, so serial studies are necessary. ➤ Early reperfusion with percutaneous coronary intervention or thrombolytics reduces mortality and preserves ventricular function in patients who have ST-segment elevation, have no contraindications, and receive treatment within the first 6 to 12 hours. ➤ The goal of secondary prevention after myocardial infarction is to prevent recurrent cardiac events and death.
CARDIAC REMODELING: Changes to the heart due to increased cardiac loading (preload and afterload) which leads to cardiac dysfunction. Some medications can prevent or even reverse the remodeling. CLINICAL APPROACH Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a clinical syndrome that is produced when the heart is unable to meet the metabolic needs of the body while maintaining normal ventricular filling pressures. A series of neurohumoral responses develop, including activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis and increased sympathetic activity, which initially may be compensatory but ultimately cause further cardiac decompensation.
Case files. / Internal medicine by Eugene Toy, John Patlan, Mark Warner