By Gary C. Rosenfeld Ph.D., David S. Loose PhD
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Additional info for BRS Pharmacology
Sympathetic nervous system (SNS) a. Short preganglionic axons originate from neurons in the thoracic and lumbar areas of the spinal cord and synapse on neurons in ganglia located outside of, but close to, the spinal cord. The adrenal medulla, anatomically considered a modified ganglion, is innervated by sympathetic preganglionic axons. b. Long postganglionic axons innervate many of the same tissues and organs as the PNS. c. Innervation of thermoregulatory sweat glands is anatomically sympathetic, but the postganglionic nerve fibers are cholinergic and release acetylcholine (ACh) as the neurotransmitter.
The answer is A. First-pass metabolism simply means passage through the portal circulation before reaching the systemic circulation. In the face of liver dysfunction, drug levels may reach higher concentrations. A hepatic function panel is generally not used to deduce a patient’s susceptibility to the drug. Bioavailability of drugs is decreased, not increased by the fraction removed after the first pass through the liver. Drugs are usually less rapidly metabolized when hepatic enzymes are elevated (which indicates hepatic dysfunction).
Long preganglionic axons originate from neurons in the cranial and sacral areas of the spinal cord and, with few exceptions, synapse on neurons in ganglia located close to or within the innervated organ. b. Short postganglionic axons innervate cardiac muscle, bronchial smooth muscle, and exocrine glands. c. Parasympathetic innervation predominates over sympathetic innervation of salivary glands, lacrimal glands, and erectile tissue. 2. Sympathetic nervous system (SNS) a. Short preganglionic axons originate from neurons in the thoracic and lumbar areas of the spinal cord and synapse on neurons in ganglia located outside of, but close to, the spinal cord.
BRS Pharmacology by Gary C. Rosenfeld Ph.D., David S. Loose PhD