By Charles G. Gross
Charles G. Gross is an experimental neuroscientist who makes a speciality of mind mechanisms in imaginative and prescient. he's additionally eager about the background of his box. In those stories describing the expansion of data concerning the mind from the early Egyptians and Greeks to the current time, he makes an attempt to reply to the query of ways the self-discipline of neuroscience developed into its smooth incarnation in the course of the twists and turns of history.
The first essay tells the tale of the visible cortex, from the 1st written point out of the mind by way of the Egyptians, to the philosophical and physiological reports by means of the Greeks, to the darkish a long time and the Renaissance, and at last, to the trendy paintings of Hubel and Wiesel. the second one essay specializes in Leonardo da Vinci's appealing anatomical paintings at the mind and the attention: used to be Leonardo drawing the physique saw, the physique remembered, the physique examine, or his personal dissections? The 3rd essay derives from the query of no matter if there could be a completely theoretical biology or biologist; it highlights the paintings of Emanuel Swedenborg, the eighteenth-century Swedish mystic who used to be 2 hundred years sooner than his time. The fourth essay includes a secret: how did the principally missed mind constitution known as the "hippocampus minor" emerge as, and why used to be it so very important within the controversies that swirled approximately Darwin's theories? the ultimate essay describes the invention of the visible features of the temporal and parietal lobes. the writer strains either advancements to nineteenth-century observations of the impact of temporal and parietal lesions in monkeys -- observations that have been forgotten and accordingly rediscovered.
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Extra resources for Brain, Vision, Memory: Tales in the History of Neuroscience
A common resolution was to combine the two views. 36 Similarly, according to the thirteenth-century Hebrew encyclopedist Rabbi Gershon ben Schlomoh d’Arles,37 the brain and heart share functions, so “when one . . is missing, the other alone continues its activities . . ” And Portia’s song in the Merchant of Venice asks, Tell me where is fancie bred, Or in the heart or in the head. Despite his fallacious understanding of brain function, Aristotle actually facilitated the subsequent development of the study of the brain.
Thought (cogitativa) and judgment (estimativa) are located in the second ventricle. Memory (memoria) is in the third ventricle. The curlicues around the ventricles may represent cerebral convolutions. As described in the text, Vesalius ridiculed this particular ªgure. 33 Chapter 1 ferred to the third cell for storage. These transfers of information occurred through passages between the ventricles that had been described by Galen. Another shift was in the quality of the drawings of the heads in which the ventricles lay, from the crude medieval conceptual representations to the sophisticated pictorial representations of the Renaissance by such masters as Durer and Leonardo (see chapter 2).
It seems clear that he never dissected a human, and of the forty-nine animals he did dissect, from elephant to snail, the majority were cold blooded,34 as were the two, chameleon and turtle, that he obviously vivisected (HA503b, YO486b). These did indeed have cold and wet brains, and the connections of the sense organs with the heart (blood vessels) might have seemed more prominent than those with the brain (nerves). On the other hand, he dissected enough vertebrate brains to describe the two covering membranes (HA494b, 495a), the two symmetrical halves (PA669b), and a “small hollow” in the middle (HA495a), perhaps the lateral ventricles.
Brain, Vision, Memory: Tales in the History of Neuroscience by Charles G. Gross