By Sugata Mitra
Contributor note: ahead by means of Nicholas Negroponte, founding father of either MIT's Media Lab and the only computer according to baby Association.
Ten years in the past, educator Sugata Mitra and his colleagues cracked open a gap in a wall bordering an city slum in New Delhi, put in a networked computer, and left it there for the neighborhood childrens to freely discover.
What they quick observed of their Hole within the Wall test was once that children from essentially the most desperately bad components of the area may well, with no guide, speedy find out how the computer operated. the youngsters additionally freely collaborated with one another, exploring the area of high-tech on-line connectivity conveniently. It used to be the dawning of Mitra’s creation to self-organized studying, and it's going to form the subsequent decade of his research.
this significant replace on Mitra’s groundbreaking paintings (which supplied the muse for the Oscar-winning movie 'Slumdog Millionaire') bargains new examine and ideas that convey how self-directed studying could make children smarter and extra inventive. He additionally offers step by step guide on how you can combine it into any lecture room. It’s an incredible lesson which could reshape our faculties and reinvigorate our academic method.
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Additional info for Beyond the Hole in the Wall: Discover the Power of Self-Organized Learning
So we still have to add 48 to a BCD (or set bit 4 and 5 to 1) to convert a BCD to ASCII. ASCII formatted numbers need the same storage space like BCDs. Loading 250 to a register set representing that number would look like this: LDI R18,'2' LDI R17,'5' LDI R16,'0' The ASCII representation of these characters are written to the registers. Bit manipulations To convert a BCD coded digit to its ASCII representation we need to set bit 4 and 5 to a one. In other words we need to OR the BCD with a constant value of hex 0x30.
Net OR R1,R2 Back from an ASCII character to a BCD is as easy. The instruction ANDI R1,0x0F isolates the lower four bits (= the lower nibble). Note that ORI and ANDI are only possible with registers above R15. If you need to do this, use one of the registers R16 to R31! If the hex value 0x0F is already in register R2, you can AND the ASCII character with this register: AND R1,R2 The other instructions for manipulating bits in a register are also limited for registers above R15. They would be formulated like this: SBR R16,0b00110000 ; Set bits 4 und 5 to one CBR R16,0b00110000 ; Clear bits 4 and 5 to zero If one or more bits of a byte have to be inverted you can use the following instruction (which is not possible for use with a constant): LDI R16,0b10101010 ; Invert all even bits EOR R1,R16 ; in register R1 and store result in R1 To invert all bits of a byte is called the One's complement: COM R1 inverts the content in register R1 and replaces zeros by one and vice versa.
The T-bit can be set or cleared, and its content can be copied to any bit in any register: CLT ; clear T-bit, or SET ; set T-bit, or BST R2,2 ; copy register R2, bit 2, to the T-bit Shift and rotate Shifting and rotating of binary numbers means multiplicating and dividing them by 2. Shifting has several sub-instructions. Multiplication with 2 is easily done by shifting all bits of a byte one binary digit left and writing a zero to the least significant bit. This is called logical shift left. The former bit 7 of the byte will be shiftet out to the carry bit in the status register.
Beyond the Hole in the Wall: Discover the Power of Self-Organized Learning by Sugata Mitra