By Wolfgang Demtröder
This creation to Atomic and Molecular Physics explains how our current version of atoms and molecules has been built over the last centuries by means of many experimental discoveries and from the theoretical part by way of the advent of quantum physics to the sufficient description of micro-particles.
It illustrates the wave version of debris via many examples and indicates the bounds of classical description. The interplay of electromagnetic radiation with atoms and molecules and its capability for spectroscopy is printed in additional aspect and specifically lasers as sleek spectroscopic instruments are mentioned extra thoroughly.
Many examples and issues of ideas may still set off the reader to an excessive energetic cooperation.
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Additional resources for An Introduction to Atomic and Molecular Physics
21). Nowadays a new device, the bubble chamber, has replaced it and the cloud chamber is mainly used for demonstration purposes. 13, 14]. b) Field Emission Microscope The oldest of these devices is the ﬁeld emission electron microscope (Fig. 15]. A very sharp tip at the end of a thin tungsten wire serves as a cathode in the middle of an evacuated glass bulb. The anode has the form of a sphere and is covered on the inside with a ﬂuorescent layer (like a television screen). When a voltage V of several kilovolts is applied between cathode and anode, the electric ﬁeld strength at the cathode surface is V rˆ , r where r is the radius of the nearly spherical tip of the tungsten wire (Fig.
52) √ = √ , nσ 2 pσ 2 where σ = π(r1 + r2 )2 is the collision cross section. It is deﬁned as a circular disk around the center of atom A with atomic radius r1 , through which atoms B with radius r2 have to pass in order to touch atom A and suffer a collision (Fig. 31). For the case of a gas of equal atoms, described by rigid balls with diameter d0 , the √ collision cross section becomes σ = πd02 . 26) accounts for the fact that the average √ relative velocity of equal atoms is larger by a factor of 2 than their average absolute velocity.
The quantity ξ 2 , which is a measure of the mean deviation of a particle from its original location at time t = 0 increases during √ the time interval ∆t only with the square root ∆t. 46). 12]. A modern version of it is shown in Fig. 20a. A small mirror is suspended on a thin torsional wire. The air molecules impinge on the mirror surface and cause, by their momentum transfer, small statistical angular deviations ∆ϕ of the mirror from its equilibrium position at ϕ = 0, which can be monitored by the reﬂection of a laser beam, detected with a position-sensitive CCD detector.
An Introduction to Atomic and Molecular Physics by Wolfgang Demtröder